Zapffe On The Tragic Pdf 12: How to Download and Read the Classic Essay by Peter Wessel Zapffe
Zapffe On The Tragic Pdf 12: A Philosophical Analysis
Have you ever wondered why human beings are so unhappy and dissatisfied with their lives? Have you ever felt that there is something fundamentally wrong with the human condition? Have you ever questioned the meaning and purpose of your existence?
Zapffe On The Tragic Pdf 12
If you have, then you are not alone. Many philosophers throughout history have tried to grapple with these existential questions and offer some answers or solutions. One of them was Peter Wessel Zapffe, a Norwegian philosopher and writer who wrote a seminal essay called "The Last Messiah" in 1933. This essay was later published as part of a book called Zapffe On The Tragic, which also contains other essays by Zapffe on various topics related to his philosophy.
In this article, we will explore the main ideas and arguments of Zapffe's essay "The Last Messiah", which is also known as Zapffe On The Tragic Pdf 12. We will also examine the implications of his philosophy for human existence, as well as the criticisms and responses that it has received from other thinkers. By the end of this article, you will have a better understanding of Zapffe's philosophy and how it relates to your own life.
What is Zapffe On The Tragic Pdf 12?
Zapffe On The Tragic Pdf 12 is a digital version of Zapffe's essay "The Last Messiah", which was originally written in Norwegian and translated into English by Gisle R. Tangenes in 2004. You can find the pdf file online for free at this link: https://philosophynow.org/issues/45/The_Last_Messiah
The essay is divided into four parts: Part I introduces the main problem that Zapffe wants to address, which is the tragic nature of human existence; Part II explains the four defense mechanisms that humans use to cope with this tragedy; Part III discusses the consequences of these defense mechanisms for human culture and civilization; and Part IV presents Zapffe's radical solution to the problem, which is the voluntary extinction of humanity.
Who is Peter Wessel Zapffe?
Peter Wessel Zapffe (1899-1990) was a Norwegian philosopher, writer, lawyer, mountaineer, and environmentalist. He is considered one of the most original and influential thinkers of the 20th century, especially in the fields of existentialism, pessimism, and antinatalism. He was also a prolific author who wrote books, essays, poems, plays, and aphorisms on various topics such as ethics, aesthetics, religion, politics, nature, and humor.
Zapffe was influenced by many philosophers such as Arthur Schopenhauer, Friedrich Nietzsche, Søren Kierkegaard, Martin Heidegger, Albert Camus, and Emil Cioran. However, he also developed his own unique perspective on life and reality, which he called "cosmic panic theory". According to this theory, human beings are afflicted by a cosmic mismatch between their high level of consciousness and their low level of biological adaptation. This mismatch creates a sense of panic, anxiety, and despair in humans, who then try to escape from this condition by various means.
What is the main argument of Zapffe On The Tragic Pdf 12?
The main argument of Zapffe On The Tragic Pdf 12 is that human beings are doomed to suffer from a tragic condition that is inherent in their nature. This condition is the result of a biological error that gave humans a higher degree of consciousness than they can handle. Zapffe writes:
"In a world where life is full of misery and suffering, where everything dies and decays, where nothing has any intrinsic value or meaning, a creature with a surplus of consciousness is a freak of nature, a biological paradox, an anomaly of evolution."
Zapffe argues that human consciousness is not a blessing but a curse, because it allows humans to perceive and reflect on the harsh realities of existence, such as death, pain, injustice, meaninglessness, and absurdity. These realities are unbearable for humans, who have a natural desire for happiness, security, significance, and coherence. Therefore, humans are constantly in a state of conflict and dissatisfaction with themselves and the world.
Zapffe compares human consciousness to a "skull cinema", where humans project their own fantasies and illusions onto the screen of reality. He says that humans are unable to face the truth of their situation, and instead create various forms of deception and self-delusion to cope with it. He calls these forms "defense mechanisms", and identifies four main types: isolation, anchoring, distraction, and sublimation.
The Four Defense Mechanisms Against The Tragic
Isolation is the simplest and most common defense mechanism that humans use to avoid the tragic. It involves repressing or ignoring certain aspects of reality that are unpleasant or disturbing. For example, humans isolate themselves from the fact that they will die someday, or that they are insignificant in the vastness of the universe, or that they are vulnerable to disease, violence, and natural disasters. By isolating themselves from these facts, humans can maintain a sense of comfort and security in their lives.
Anchoring is the defense mechanism that involves attaching oneself to something that provides a sense of stability and meaning in life. For example, humans anchor themselves to social norms, moral values, religious beliefs, political ideologies, personal identities, family ties, or cultural traditions. By anchoring themselves to these things, humans can feel that they belong to something bigger and more important than themselves, and that they have a purpose and direction in life.
Distraction is the defense mechanism that involves diverting one's attention from the tragic aspects of reality by focusing on something else that is more pleasant or stimulating. For example, humans distract themselves by engaging in various activities such as work, entertainment, hobbies, sports, travel, or consumption. By distracting themselves with these activities, humans can avoid thinking about the problems and challenges that they face in life.
Sublimation is the most sophisticated and creative defense mechanism that humans use to cope with the tragic. It involves transforming one's negative emotions and impulses into something positive and productive. For example, humans sublimate their fear of death into artistic expression, their anger into social activism, their guilt into charity work, or their sadness into humor. By sublimating their emotions and impulses into these forms, humans can achieve a sense of satisfaction and fulfillment in life.
The Implications Of Zapffe's Philosophy For Human Existence
The paradox of consciousness
Zapffe's philosophy implies that human consciousness is a paradoxical phenomenon that both enables and disables human existence. On one hand, consciousness gives humans the ability to think rationally, creatively, morally, and aesthetically. It also allows humans to experience emotions such as joy, love, compassion, and gratitude. On the other hand, consciousness exposes humans to the harsh realities of existence that cause them pain, sorrow, fear, and despair. It also creates a sense of alienation and isolation from nature and other living beings.
Zapffe argues that human consciousness is an evolutionary mistake that should have never occurred. He says that consciousness is incompatible with life, which is based on instinct, adaptation, and survival. He claims that consciousness is a burden and a liability for humans, who have to bear the weight of it every day.
The futility of meaning
limation. These defense mechanisms allow humans to create a false sense of comfort, stability, meaning, and satisfaction in their lives. However, these defense mechanisms also have negative consequences for human culture and civilization, such as conformity, dogmatism, superficiality, and decadence.
We have further learned that Zapffe's philosophy implies that human existence is paradoxical, futile, and absurd. Zapffe argues that human consciousness is a curse that both enables and disables human existence. He also argues that human existence has no intrinsic or objective meaning, value, or purpose. He also argues that human existence is full of suffering that is meaningless and unjustified.
We have finally learned that Zapffe's philosophy has been criticized and challenged by other philosophers who have offered different perspectives on human existence. Some of these criticisms are that Zapffe's philosophy leads to nihilism, ignores the positive aspects of human existence, and rejects the possibility of transcendence. Some of these responses are that Zapffe's philosophy is realistic, balanced, and comprehensive.
In conclusion, Zapffe On The Tragic Pdf 12 is a provocative and insightful essay that challenges us to rethink our assumptions and beliefs about ourselves and the world. It invites us to confront the tragic aspects of reality and to question the validity of our defense mechanisms. It also encourages us to create our own meaning, value, and purpose in life, and to follow our own moral or ethical principles.
Q: Who is the author of Zapffe On The Tragic Pdf 12?
A: The author of Zapffe On The Tragic Pdf 12 is Peter Wessel Zapffe, a Norwegian philosopher and writer who lived from 1899 to 1990.
Q: What is the main theme of Zapffe On The Tragic Pdf 12?
A: The main theme of Zapffe On The Tragic Pdf 12 is the tragic condition of human existence, which is caused by a mismatch between human consciousness and human biology.
Q: What are the four defense mechanisms that humans use to cope with the tragic condition?
A: The four defense mechanisms that humans use to cope with the tragic condition are isolation, anchoring, distraction, and sublimation.
Q: What are the implications of Zapffe's philosophy for human existence?
A: The implications of Zapffe's philosophy for human existence are that human existence is paradoxical, futile, and absurd.
Q: What are some criticisms and responses to Zapffe's philosophy?
A: Some criticisms and responses to Zapffe's philosophy are that it leads to nihilism, ignores the positive aspects of human existence, and rejects the possibility of transcendence. 71b2f0854b